In this section
Palm Springs main view
Palm Springs outlet before dam removal
Palm Springs is a fourth-magnitude spring, flowing from up to seven vents or sand boils in the run. The upper four vents are labeled A, B, C, and D. The upper vent A is in a small pool that is closest to the road at the bottom of the ravine. Vent B is in the upper-middle part of the run, vent C is in the lower-middle part, and vent D is in the lower part of the run as it flows toward the northeast for about 0.3 mile to Black Water Creek. Prior to April 2003, the spring vents were impounded in a one-acre pond by a dam. The earthen dam was removed in April 2003, exposing the vents.
Palm Springs lake before dam removal
Discharge at Palm Springs was measured by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1997 and 2001. St. Johns River Water Management District measured discharge twice in 2003, once in 2005, and once in 2008. The difference between the minimum and maximum discharges is 0.75 cubic feet per second (cfs) over the period. The mean and median discharges for the period from 1997 to 2008 are 0.68 cfs and 0.70 cfs, respectively (see the table below).
Palm Springs was sampled by USGS in 1997, twice by Lake County in 2004, and by the district in 2005. Summary statistics of the water quality data for selected variables are shown in the table below.
Summary statistics of water quality and discharge at Palm Springs
|Palm Springs — Lake County||Min||Mean||Median||Max||Count||Period|
|Alkalinity, total, mg/L as CaCO3||101.0||104.6||106.0||106.7||3||2004−2005|
|Calcium, total, mg/L as Ca||125.3||128.7||128.7||132.0||2||2004−2005|
|Chloride, total, mg/L as Cl||320.0||355.4||350.8||400.0||4||1997−2005|
|Magnesium, total, mg/L as Mg||39.8||42.0||43.0||43.2||3||2004−2005|
|Nitrate + nitrite, total, mg/L as N||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.01||1||2004|
|Orthophosphate, total, mg/L as P||0.03||0.03||0.03||0.03||1||2005|
|Phosphorus, total, mg/L as P||0.02||0.02||0.02||0.02||1||2005|
|Potassium, total, mg/L as K||6.7||7.0||6.9||7.3||3||2004−2005|
|Sodium, total, mg/L as Na||190.0||196.0||196.0||202.0||2||2004−2005|
|Specific conductance, field, µmhos/cm at 25°C||1938||1978||1980||2015||3||2004−2005|
|Specific conductance, lab, µmhos/cm at 25°C||1790||1844||1844||1897||2||1997−2005|
|Sulfate, total, mg/L as SO4||318.0||324.8||320.0||336.3||3||1997−2005|
|Total dissolved solids, mg/L||948||1090||1115||1180||4||1997−2005|
|Water temperature, °C||24.4||25.4||24.8||27.4||4||1997−2005|
mg/L = milligrams per liter
cfs = cubic feet per second
Age of discharge water
The age of water discharging from Palm Springs in Lake County was determined by measuring the concentration of tritium, carbon-14, and carbon-13 in the spring discharge, which was measured in March 2005. Palm Springs had a tritium concentration of 0.18 tritium units, a carbon-14 concentration of 14 percent modern carbon, and a delta carbon-13 value of −7.48 parts per thousand. The tritium concentration suggests that the water is between 70 and 90 years old. The carbon-14 concentration of 14% modern carbon can result from the reaction of rainfall with calcite, dolomite, and soil organic matter, and the mixing with Lower Floridan water.