In this section
Su-No-Wa Spring main view
1972 photo courtesy of FGS
Su-No-Wa Spring is a sixth-magnitude spring that flows from the surficial aquifer. The spring is enclosed by a 4-foot-diameter concrete pipe buried vertically in the sand and extended with blocks to about 1.5 feet above land surface. The fine white sand bottom of the enclosed spring pool is 6.5 feet below the top of the block wall. A 2-inch-diameter horizontal overflow pipe penetrates the concrete pipe enclosure 2.8 feet below the top of the block wall. Water enters the spring pool through the sand bottom, causing small sand boils, and flows out of a concrete enclosure through the overflow pipe, which extends downslope about 30 feet to the northwest. The discharge then continues to Thomas Creek about 100 feet from the spring. Water also seeps from the sandy hillside at several other points near the enclosed spring at about the same altitude (Rosenau et al. 1977).
Discharge at Su-No-Wa Spring was measured by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from 1946 to 1972. The mean and median discharge were 0.015 and 0.014 cubic feet per second (cfs), respectively (see the table below).
Su-No-Wa Spring was sampled four times by USGS from 1956 to 1972. Summary statistics of the water quality data for selected variables are shown in the table below.
Summary statistics of water quality and discharge at Su-No-Wa Spring
|Alkalinity, total, mg/L as CaCO3||30.0||37.0||36.0||45.0||3||1956−1972|
|Calcium, dissolved, mg/L as Ca||9.6||11.5||12.0||13.0||3||1956−1972|
|Chloride, total, mg/L as Cl||5.0||6.0||6.0||7.0||3||1956−1972|
|Fluoride, dissolved, mg/L as F||0.00||0.07||0.10||0.10||3||1956−1972|
|Magnesium, dissolved, mg/L as Mg||0.5||2.5||2.7||4.3||3||1956−1972|
|Orthophosphate, total, mg/L as P||0.003||0.003||0.003||0.003||1||1972|
|Phosphorus, total, mg/L as P||0.01||0.01||0.01||0.01||1||1972|
|Potassium, dissolved, mg/L as K||0.2||0.3||0.3||0.4||3||1956−1972|
|Sodium, dissolved, mg/L as Na||3.3||3.7||3.5||4.2||3||1956−1972|
|Specific conductance, lab, µmhos/cm at 25°C||80.0||91.0||87.0||107.0||3||1956−1972|
|Sulfate, total, mg/L as SO4||0.5||0.7||0.8||0.8||3||1956−1972|
|Total dissolved solids, mg/L||69||69||69||69||1||1972|
|Water temperature, °C||20.5||21.0||21.1||21.5||3||1960−1972|
mg/L = milligrams per liter
cfs = cubic feet per second