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Water bodies, watersheds and storm water

Gizzard shad harvesting at Lake George, Florida video

Shad harvesting

As part of a multifaceted approach to restoring water quality in waterways, the St. Johns River Water Management District has been reducing the “rough fish” population in various areas. Such work has proven beneficial in lakes Griffin, Denham and Apopka in central Florida and at Newnans Lake east of Gainesville. That work is now being conducted in the St. Johns River at Lake George.

In the early 1990s, district scientists discovered that removal of gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) helps improve the health of some waterways that are overrun by algae where the algae cloud the water and cause a sickly green color. Algae are present in all water bodies, but too many nutrients in the water can result in excessive algal growth. The rough fish harvesting process helps cleanse nutrient-rich water and restores the water body’s health and the fish habitats.

Gizzard shad are a native fish found in most Florida waters and account for 5 to 20 percent of the total fish population in healthy Florida lakes. However, in nutrient-rich, algae-dominated lakes, shad proliferate and can account for more than 90 percent of the total fish population. Gizzard shad become abundant in waterways with high levels of nutrients. In addition, large numbers of gizzard shad may contribute to nutrient recycling by stirring up bottom sediments during feeding.

How nutrients affect Florida waters

Water quality is affected by the amount of nutrients entering the water body from surrounding lands. Human activities can increase nutrients entering the water, degrading water quality. Water bodies with low nutrients have clear tea-colored water and lots of underwater plants. Excess nutrients feed algae that turn water murky green, which blocks sunlight to underwater plants. Water bodies with murky green water and fewer underwater plants have fewer sport fish and more gizzard shad.

Two men in a boat unload shad into a hopper and conveyor system at Herlong Park

A day’s catch is unloaded at Herlong Park.

How shad harvests may improve a waterway

Gizzard shad feed on algae on the bottom of the waterway, stirring up sediments and clouding the water. Shad excrete nutrients back into the water, recycling nutrients from the bottom that feed more algae, keeping the water murky green.

Removing large numbers of bottom-feeding gizzard shad may improve water quality by reducing resuspension of sediments and recycling of nutrients from the water body’s bottom. Removing large numbers of shad from a water body also removes the nutrients in the fishes’ bodies.

Also, the shad eat microscopic zooplankton. Because zooplankton feed on algae, removal of gizzard shad may result in a larger population of zooplankton, which will consume greater amounts of algae and provide increased food resources for juvenile game fish species.

Fish drop off the conveyor and are loaded into boxes for weighing

Fish are loaded in boxes for weighing.

Previous shad harvests

Harvest of large numbers of gizzard shad from three nutrient-rich lakes in central Florida may have helped improve water quality in those lakes. For example, at Lake Denham, two years of experimental shad harvesting greatly reduced the shad population. During the experimental period, which ended in 1994, nutrient levels decreased by more than one half and water clarity increased four-fold, from about nine inches to more than three feet. In addition, the amount of underwater vegetation — habitat for juvenile game fish — also increased. Local fishermen reported substantial increases in game fish caught in Lake Denham.

Gizzard shad move up a conveyor belt for processing

Gizzard shad move up a conveyor belt for processing.

Annual large-scale shad harvests began at Lake Apopka in 1993 and Lake Griffin in 2002. The shad harvests occurred at the same time as runoff of nutrients into the lakes from surrounding lands was being reduced. The water quality improved significantly in both lakes. Some of these improvements in water quality may be due to shad harvesting and some may be due to reduction in nutrients entering the lakes.

How harvests are conducted
Iced fish are loaded by forklift into a refrigerated truck for shipment to a processing plant

Iced fish are loaded for shipment to a processing plant.

The district hires commercial fishing vendors to net shad. Other fish such as bowfin, gar and tilapia are also harvested when caught in the nets, while sport fish are immediately released. Harvested fish are unloaded from boats at a temporarily constructed landing site on the water body’s shoreline. Each boat’s catch is weighed, iced and transferred to a refrigerated trailer truck for transport to a processing plant. The fish are sold as bait for crayfish and crab traps.

When the harvest is over, the fishery and the district dismantle the site and the district restores the area to its previous condition.


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St. Johns River Water Management District
4049 Reid Street, Palatka, FL 32177
(800) 725-5922