The St. Johns River Water Management District implements a wide variety of projects — many with partners — aimed at protecting water supplies, improving water quality and restoring natural systems, as well as providing flood protection in an 18-county jurisdiction in northeast and east-central Florida.
The projects described on this page — undertaken to fulfill its core missions — are broken into district-led restoration and construction projects, springs protection projects, and districtwide and agricultural cost-share projects.
Black Creek Water Resource Development project
Updated on 9-25-2020
The primary goal of the Black Creek Water Resource Development (WRD) Project is to increase recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer in northeast Florida using excess flow from Black Creek, in Clay County.
The project is among several identified in the North Florida Regional Water Supply Plan (NFRWSP) to help meet future water supply demands while protecting natural resources. This project, which will be built in southwest Clay County between Penney Farms and Camp Blanding, focuses on providing recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Keystone Heights region and Lower Santa Fe basin.
The project will divert up to 10 million gallons per day from the South Fork of Black Creek during wet weather high flow periods. Diversions will only be made when there is sufficient flow available to ensure the protection of natural resources within the creek. The water will be pumped through a transmission system before eventually discharging into Alligator Creek. Alligator Creek flows into Lake Brooklyn, which will increase recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer through the lake bottom.
The project is also expected to contribute to regional minimum flows and levels (MFLs) recovery and may help improve water levels in lakes and the Alligator Creek system, including drought-stressed lakes Brooklyn and Geneva. Restoration of the lakes is a secondary benefit of the project.
Funding for the project is part of a 2017 legislative appropriation totaling $41 million championed by Sen. Rob Bradley, R-Fleming Island, Rep. Bobby Payne, R-Palatka, and Rep. Travis Cummings, R-Orange Park. The District is also contributing $7 million toward the project.
View the full size PDF project map
Kickoff event, March 2017
Frequently asked questions
We are committed to keeping the public informed as the project progresses. To be added to the project information distribution list, please email firstname.lastname@example.org with the subject line Black Creek.
How will the project impact salinity concentrations in Black Creek?
- Salinity change will be the equivalent of 1/16th of a teaspoon in a gallon of water.
- These small changes in salinity will result in unnoticeable shifts in wetland communities both in Black Creek and the St. Johns River.
- The point at which saltwater meets freshwater will move by 250 feet as a result of this project, which is equivalent to less than the length of a football field.
Will the project reduce the flow of water in Black Creek?
- Not significantly. In fact, at low flows, or approximately 25 percent of the time, there will be no withdrawals from Black Creek in order to be protective of the natural systems in the creek.
- When flow levels are average or above average, no more than 10 million gallons a day will be diverted for aquifer recharge. That’s no more than 4% of the total average daily flow in Black Creek.
What is the project’s effect on Black Creek’s water quality?
- The project will have no impact on water quality in Black Creek.
What studies have been conducted to guide the project and reassure the public?
- The District conducted a preliminary assessment that shows that the proposed quantity of surface water may be safely diverted from Black Creek with little to no environmental effects. You can find the Black Creek Water Resource Development Preliminary Assessment report on our website, www.sjrwmd.com/projects/#black-creek, on the Black Creek page.
- Additional evaluations will occur as permitting, design and engineering move forward.
Has pumping already begun at Black Creek?
- No, the project is in permitting phase. Final design changes, if any, will be made when the permitting phase is complete.
Are there concerns that EZ Base could contaminate the project site or Black Creek itself?
- No, the area where EZ Base concerns exist are not geographically near the Black Creek project application site or recharge areas.
- For additional information about EZ Base, please reach out to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s Northeast District Ombudsman, Russell Simpson, at 904-256-1653.
How is this project beneficial and to whom?
- The project is among several identified in the 2017 NFRWSP to help meet future water supply demands across the region while protecting natural resources.
- The project will recharge the Upper Floridan aquifer in northeast Florida, helping to sustain or recover established MFLs in the region while also benefitting water users.
- While the project may help improve water levels in lakes in Keystone Heights and throughout the Alligator Creek system, including drought-stressed lakes Brooklyn and Geneva, its primary purpose is to recharge the Upper Floridan aquifer and, as stated above, is expected to benefit MFLs in the region.
When did the public learn about this project?
- This project has been discussed broadly with the public since May 2013.
- The Black Creek project is part of the 2017 North Florida Regional Water Supply Plan (NFRWSP), which was developed through a highly collaborative process among the Suwannee River and St. Johns River water management districts and FDEP, local governments, public supply utilities, environmental advocates and other stakeholders.
- Over four years, the NFRWSP planning process included 36 Stakeholder Advisory Committee meetings, more than 50 other stakeholder meetings and two public workshops to engage stakeholders to understand their individual perspectives as related to water resource issues in north Florida.
- The District will continue to hold public meetings as the project progresses in order to keep the public well informed.
How are you keeping the public informed about the Black Creek project?
- We have a webpage dedicated to the Black Creek Project at sjrwmd.com/projects/#black-creek where we keep updated, timely information on the project as well as project history.
- We’ll continue to share project progress and updates through our District Facebook and Twitter pages, @sjrwmd.
- To get regular email updates on the project, please join our interested parties list by emailing email@example.com with the subject line Black Creek.
- U.S. Army Corps of Engineers request for additional information (RAI) on permit and application submitted. Application submitted June 21, 2018. Most recent RAI response submitted July 3, 2019.
- Florida Department of Transportation permit issued on Oct. 30, 2018.
- Ongoing permit pre-application meetings with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).
- Ongoing evaluation of treatment alternatives.
- 90% project design deliverable completed.
- Aquifer modeling results indicate substantial benefit to the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Keystone lakes. Regional aquifer recharge estimated to be 4.5 million gallons per day on average and lake levels to be increased by 10 feet or more depending on local rainfall and flows within Black Creek.
- The following reports are complete: topographic survey, geotechnical report, archeological study and endangered species report.
- Land and easements for the project acquired.
- District Governing Board approved the design contractor ranking, authorization of final contract execution and associated budget transfers
- Design and engineering
- Land acquisition
- Evaluation of treatment alternatives
- Finalize permitting
- Design completion
- Begin construction
Crane Creek / M-1 Canal flow restoration project
Updated on 2-4-2020
The M-1 Canal is a 100-year old, man-made flood control feature in Brevard County that cuts through the historic drainage divide between the St. Johns River and the Indian River Lagoon.
The M-1 Canal diverts stormwater flow from 5,300 acres of drainage area in Melbourne, West Melbourne, Melbourne Village and portions of unincorporated Brevard County and sends the water east to the Indian River Lagoon via Crane Creek. Elevated levels of nutrients within runoff from this currently diverted watershed degrade water quality in the Indian River Lagoon and provide fuel for algal blooms.
The Crane Creek / M-1 Canal Project — identified in the 2017 Indian River Lagoon Stormwater Capture and Treatment Feasibility Analysis and led by the St. Johns River Water Management District — will substantially reduce nutrients flowing, or “loading,” to the Indian River Lagoon. Construction of the project will result in re-routing water in the M-1 Canal westward for treatment in a constructed stormwater treatment area prior to discharging to the St. Johns River Basin.
Project components include an operable weir east of Evans Road (behind the Melbourne Square Mall), a pump station, pipeline and stormwater treatment area west of Interstate 95. The operable weir – which allows capture of runoff for the pump station – is engineered to have no impact on the existing flood control capability of the M-1 Canal. To accomplish this, the canal and weir will be designed in a way to allow stormwater to flow unimpeded during major storm events.
This project will help reduce nutrient flows into both the Indian River Lagoon and the St. Johns River while also providing a potential water supply benefit by restoring 7 million gallons of freshwater flow per day to the St. Johns River.
Nutrient reductions to the Indian River Lagoon are estimated to be:
- Total nitrogen 24,000 lb./yr.
- Total phosphorus 3,100 lb./yr.
- Engineering design start
- Hydraulic and hydrologic modeling
- Engineering design
- Land acquisition
- Completion of land acquisition
- Engineering design
FY 2020 – 2022
- Final design
- Hydraulic and hydrologic modeling is competed.
- Design is underway.
- Brevard County ($2.03 million funding contribution)
- Florida Department of Environmental Protection ($2.45 million funding contribution)
- Johns River Water Management District (approx. $6.1 million)
When is the project slated to begin and when will it be completed?
The construction phase of this project is scheduled to begin in July-August 2020. The anticipated completion date is June 2022.
Reversing some of the flow in M-1 Canal and sending stormwater west to the St. Johns River will help the Indian River Lagoon, but how will the stormwater be cleaned before it reaches the St. Johns River?
Water from the M-1 Canal will be pumped under Interstate 95 and Heritage Parkway to a stormwater treatment area (STA) and created wetland. The STA provides treatment for the water which then flows through the created wetland for additional treatment.
Will construction impact local traffic, especially in nearby neighborhoods?
Construction of this project will have no impact on local traffic.
Will the installation of the weir at the M-1 Canal contribute to flooding in nearby neighborhoods already prone to flooding during storm events?
This project will have no adverse impact on the existing stormwater system. Flood protection is a priority and has been carefully analyzed and modeled. The system is designed so that the proposed weir will be lowered (open position) in the event of a major oncoming rainfall event (such as a hurricane or tropical storm). Redundant automatic sensors in the canal will also lower the weirs if the water in the canal reaches certain elevations. The system is continually monitored by operations staff to ensure it is functioning properly. Additional analysis has been performed to ensure that even if the weir is left in the up position, flood protections will remain unchanged. This is possible because the M-1 Canal will be widened over the weir to maintain current flow capacity.
Where in the St. Johns River is the outfall located and does the additional water benefit the river?
The outfall is located west of the Heritage Parkway approximately one-half mile north of U.S.192. The outfall consists of an STA and a treatment wetland. The treated water then streams into the St. Johns River Marsh via overland flow. The additional water will benefit the St. Johns River by restoring historic baseflow from the watershed that was diverted from the St. Johns River to the Indian River Lagoon.
Who do I call or email if I have additional questions or concerns?
If you have questions about this project you can email firstname.lastname@example.org or call Marc Van Heden at 321-676-6604.
Doctors Lake restoration project
Updated on 2-4-2020
Located in Clay County adjacent to the west bank of the St. Johns River, the Doctors Lake Basin (basin) covers approximately 23 square miles. The basin’s former agricultural and forested lands now support medium and high-density residential areas and commercial properties.
Doctors Lake has experienced water quality issues due to nutrient loading from stormwater runoff and other non-point sources such as septic tank effluent. Because of its narrow connection with the St. Johns River, the 3,400-acre lake has poor circulation and nutrients tend to concentrate in the lake.
Contributing nutrient-loading factors include:
- Basin population of 35,000 (2000 Census)
- 12,000-plus housing units
- 847 units on septic tanks (as of 2008)
During the 2018 legislative session, Sen. Rob Bradley, R-Fleming Island, Senate Budget Chairman, and Rep Travis Cummings, R-Orange Park, secured specific funding during the budget process for the St. Johns River to implement water resources projects that will help improve water quality in the St. Johns River, its tributaries and the Keystone Heights Lake Region, as well as improving public access and recreation projects within the St. Johns River Water Management District.
With then-Gov. Rick Scott’s support and approval of the budget, the St. Johns River Water Management District, Clay County and Clay County Utility Authority (CCUA) partnered to identify potential projects in the area.
Three potential projects identified are:
- Septic-to-sewer projects extending the CCUA infrastructure to serve lakeside neighborhoods currently on septic systems. Approximately 80 homes converted to central sewer would reduce total nitrogen entering Doctors Lake by about 1,500 pounds per year.
- Replacing old or failing septic tanks with Individual Distributed Sewer Systems in areas where conventional sewer service is not available or feasible, which will provide treatment that is comparable to that of wastewater treatment facilities. Utilizing this new technology may provide onsite nitrogen reduction up to an estimated 1,125 pounds per year.
- The Doctors Lake Enhanced Effluent Treatment Project, which will provide innovative technology to remove phosphorus from wastewater effluent. The proposed project will treat an estimated 2 million gallons per day on an annual average basis. This project will remove up to an estimated 6,500 pounds per year of total phosphorus.
Estimated total nitrogen reduction is between 2,200 and 3,000 pounds per year and estimated total phosphorus reduction is 6,500 pounds per year. Total cost for the three projects is $4.5 million.
Lake Apopka is the headwaters of the Ocklawaha Chain of Lakes. The district and partners have worked since the 1980s to improve the lake’s water quality and habitat, achieving significant water quality and habitat improvements.
For example, in 1994 there was no submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the lake. A 2019 survey found SAV around most of the lake’s perimeter and district staff have observed much of the SAV flowering. Flowering is important for two reasons: first it is an indicator of good plant health, and second the seeds produced provide for further expansion of these important plants. The return and continuing expansion of SAV indicates water quality and clarity are improving. In May 2018, Field and Stream Magazine recognized the area, highlighting impressive catches of bass and a resurgence of fishing tournaments in the area.
Lake Apopka’s water quality restoration has been based on a multipronged approach of diet and exercise. “Diet” has focused on reducing the amount of phosphorus entering the lake. The largest “diet” improvement occurred following the Legislature’s 1996 direction to the district to buy out the farms on the lake’s north shore. This area, formerly a floodplain marsh, was diked, drained and put into agricultural production in the 1940s. Phosphorus from these farms fueled the continuous algal bloom which shaded the lake’s vegetation and caused the bass fishery to collapse.
Key to reducing phosphorus loading from the North Shore was restoring the area’s wetlands to reduce the volume of water pumped to the lake. Now all discharges are treated to inactivate phosphorus and in 2003 the passage of the Lake Apopka Stormwater Rule enhanced the lake’s diet to the entire watershed.
“Exercise” is removal of phosphorus already in the lake, which has included harvest of rough fish (largely gizzard shad) from the lake and operating the marsh flow-way to continuously filter algae, suspended solids and associated nutrients. The combined effect of the diet and exercise has been a dramatic improvement in water quality. Since the late 1980s, phosphorus concentrations have declined 64% and water clarity increased 55%. The recovery of clearer water and return of sunlight to the lake’s bottom has caused the regrowth of submerged aquatic vegetation, missing for 50 years, and the critical bass habitat. In 2016, recognizing the improving water quality and habitat conditions, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission stocked nearly 1,000,000 fingerling bass in the lake.
- North Shore Water and Phosphorus Management
In early 2018, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) concurred with the district’s site-wide biological assessment of pesticide concentrations on the Lake Apopka North Shore, thus enabling the district to begin implementing a broader management of water levels and wetland vegetation. The broader management flexibility will provide additional benefits to Lake Apopka by allowing more water to be stored on the North Shore.
- Harvesting of gizzard shad has been an important factor in the water quality improvements, with more than one million pounds of shad removed annually. Since 1993, the shad removal equates to 231,000 pounds of phosphorus removed.
- Operation of the Lake Apopka Marsh Flow-way since 2003 has resulted in 40 percent of the lake’s water volume having been filtered annually, to remove suspended solids, algae and associated nutrients.
New district projects:
- The district has initiated a $1.2 million pay-for-performance project with Phosphorus Free Water Solutions that uses an innovative technology to remove phosphorus from the lake’s water. The project is in partnership with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
- The district is partnering with the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission on a $5.7 million project to improve water quality by capturing lake sediments in a natural settling area (called a sump), dredged into the lake’s bottom to be periodically pumped to an area on the North Shore designed to hold the removed sediments. The sump was constructed just outside the entrance to the Apopka-Beauclair Canal in hopes of trapping sediments that might otherwise move toward Lake Beauclair.
- The district is conducting maintenance and adding improvements to the marsh flow-way designed to optimize its ability to filter suspended sediments and associated nutrients from Lake Apopka’s water. The district is partnering with Florida Department of Environmental Protection on the $2.7 million project.
- The district is implementing a series of infrastructure improvements on the Lake Apopka North Shore that will allow more water storage, increase water management flexibility and reduce nutrient inputs to Lake Apopka. The district is partnering with Florida Department of Environmental Protection on these projects that include:
- North Shore infrastructure improvements
Raising internal levee heights and construction of internal pumps. The project totals $2.4 million.
- North Shore Interconnect
Constructing an internal pump to connect two major portions of the North Shore. The project estimate is $1.5 million.
- North Shore infrastructure improvements
- Duda Water Storage Improvements
Raising internal levee heights and construction of hydraulic improvements to separate Duda into four cells that can be independently managed. The project estimate is $2.5 million.
- Utilizing funding from the 2014 Florida Water and Land Conservation Initiative, the district has accelerated wetland restoration efforts on portions of the North Shore.
- The district is working to accelerate the recovery of aquatic plants in Lake Apopka with a $1.2 million restoration effort that includes:
- A collaboration with the University of Florida to improve underwater planting techniques and plant tens of thousands of aquatic plants throughout the lake.
- Planting submerged aquatic plants like eelgrass and pondweed. This project is in partnership with Florida Department of Environmental Protection and will plant up to 150,000 plants in Lake Apopka.
- Planting floating leaved plants like water lily and lotus to provide submerged habitat in up to 35 acres of the lake. This project is in partnership with Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.
Lake Minneola Innovative Algal Bloom Treatment Project
Following recommendations from the state’s Blue-Green Algae Task Force with support from Gov. Ron DeSantis, the Florida Legislature appropriated fiscal year 2020 grant funding for innovative technology projects to test new processes for dealing with water quality challenges.
Several grants were awarded for innovative projects across Florida, including a pilot project to control, eliminate and possibly prevent algal blooms from forming in Lake Minneola, in Lake County.
Lake Minneola, which has been plagued with cyanobacteria, or potentially harmful blue-green algae, is a prime candidate for a pilot remediation project to combat harmful algal blooms.
The St. Johns River Water Management District has entered into a grant agreement with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) to provide the support for contracting with BlueGreen U.S. Water Technologies, Inc. (BGWT)) to test its technology’s ability to control and manage algal concentrations in Lake Minneola.
Using a combination of collected field data, water samples and a hydrogen peroxide-based product, the BGWT pilot project will work to identify algal-prone areas in Lake Minneola and then deploy its technology in strategic locations to reduce current or forming algal blooms.
The pilot project is expected to be in operation for at least six months with initial deployment planned for August 2020.
The St. Johns River Water Management District hosted a virtual public meeting on July 29 at 6 p.m. to provide information about an innovative technology to reduce or eliminate harmful algal blooms in Lake Minneola. The meeting was held virtually due to guidelines from Gov. Ron DeSantis and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to limit the size of public gatherings to reduce the spread of COVID-19.
Springs protection projects
Since 2014, 126 projects protecting spring water flow and water quality have been funded through district cost-share programs. The district has contributed more than $48.7 million toward vital springs projection projects, resulting in more than 90 million gallons of alternative water supplied and 6.2 million gallons of water a day (mgd) conserved. These projects also have reduced total nitrogen to priority spring systems by 1.1 million lbs./year and total phosphorus by 170,000 lbs./year.
Blue Springs — Volusia County Wastewater Infrastructure for Blue Spring
(2019 funding cycle; $1.4 million district cost-share)
Volusia County is using cost-share funds to decommission its Del North wastewater treatment plant, construct a master lift station and three miles of piping, and connect to the Volusia County Southwest Regional Water Reclamation Facility for advanced wastewater treatment. The project will benefit Blue Springs, as both sites are within the Volusia Blue Springs Priority Focus Area and the pending Basin Management Action Plan area for Volusia Blue Springs. Annual estimated water quality benefits are 6,390 pounds of nitrogen and 2,065 pounds of phosphorus reductions.
Silver Springs — Marion County Silver Springs Shores Regional Capacity Improvements
(2019 funding cycle; $1.5 million district cost-share)
This project is to improve the Silver Springs Shores Wastewater Treatment Facility by enhancing the nutrient removal capabilities to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards and to expand the capacity by 0.5 million gallons per day for future package plant and septic-to-sewer connections. Estimated water quality benefit is 3,050 pounds a year of nitrogen removal and a secondary benefit of .01 million gallons a day of alternative water made available within the Silver Springs Priority Focus Area and the pending Basin Management Action Plan area.
Wekiwa-Rock Springs — Altamonte Springs Regional Water Reclamation Facility Advanced Wastewater
(2018 funding cycle; $1.5 million district cost-share)
Altamonte Springs is improving the treatment process at its regional wastewater reclamation facility from secondary to advanced wastewater treatment standards. The plant is located in the Wekiwa-Rock Springs Priority Focus Area, and the process improvements benefit the Wekiwa-Rock Springs Basin, Lake Jesup and Lake Apopka. Estimated annual water quality benefits are 10,274 pounds of nitrogen and 54,794 pounds of phosphorus.
Volusia Blue Springs — Deltona Water Management Site
(2017 funding cycle; $1.9 million district cost-share)
This project furthers construction and water management features at a city-owned water management site by the West Volusia Water Suppliers cooperative. This phase includes construction of a 4 million gallon per day (mgd) system to treat stormwater and future surface water from Lake Monroe. The treated water will be used to augment reclaimed water supplies. Project benefits include helping to meet the requirements for the recovery strategy set by the district in 2006 for the Volusia Blue Springs minimum flows and levels. Total project construction is estimated at $7.5 million, with contributions of $1.9 million each from the district and Florida Department of Environmental Protection.